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分阶段安排阅读活动 巧用材料训练技巧

本文作者: 21ST
期号:94  阅读数:8937
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  编者按:如何提高学生的阅读水平已成为教师和学生共同关注的话题。教师要善于激发学生的阅读兴趣,训练阅读技巧。本栏目精选了三例提高学生阅读能力的教学案例,从如何分阶段进行阅读训练、巧妙运用杂志作为阅读材料和培养学生的阅读策略三个方面探讨如何有效组织阅读教学活动。

  Strategies for communicative reading

  Patrick Howarth

  CLASSROOM reading aims at helping students develop skills they need to read more effectively. To enable this we plan “pre-reading”“while-reading” and “post-reading” stages.

  Pre-reading tasks

  Pre-reading tasks aim to raise the reader’s knowledge of what they are about to read. This raising of awareness is most effectively done collaboratively. You can do it in the following way.

  Step 1: Let the students get into pairs and tell their partners what they know about the topic.

  Step 2: Let them look at some pictures related to the topic.

  Step 3: Ask students to skim the first paragraph to get the gist.

  Step 4: Ask them to predict content. You may let them read the beginning to predict the end or read the middle to predict the beginning and the end. Predictions can be based on the title, knowledge of the author, a set of keywords from the text, etc.

  While-reading tasks

  Reading can be collaborative. The following activities may be of help.

  * Running and reading.

  Step 1: Divide the class into student A and student B pairs. Student A sits at one end of the classroom and student B stands next to him/her.

  Step 2: Stick the text to be read on the wall at the other end of the room. Give student A a list of questions.

  Step 3: Student A reads the first question to student B who has to run through the classroom to find the answer in the text, and then run back to dictate the answer to student A, who then tells B question two and so on.

  Step 4: The first pair to answer all the questions wins. (You may ask the students to swap roles halfway through so everyone gets a chance to scan).

  * Cut up texts

  Step 1: Photocopy a suitable text and cut it diagonally into four.

  Step 2: Seat the students in fours. Give a piece of the text to each student. They cannot show their piece to the others.

  Step 3: Give each group a set of questions.

  Step 4: The group have to work collaboratively to answer the questions since no one has the whole of the text.

  * Exploiting students’ written work

  You can put the students written work up on the walls for others to read. Tasks can include guessing who the author is, voting on which is the most interesting, selecting some for a class magazine.

  * Post-reading tasks

  1. Discussions of the text

  2. Summarizing texts

  3. Reviewing texts

  4 Looking at the language of the text (e.g. collocations)

  课堂阅读训练的目的是培养学生有效阅读的能力,为此,我们把课堂阅读分为“阅读前期”“阅读中期”和“阅读后期”三部分进行。

  阅读前的准备:

  阅读文章之前的准备工作旨在帮助学生了解文章的相关知识,这个阶段如果由学生合作完成,会达到较好的效果。

  第一步:把学生每两人分成一组,互相告诉对方自己对于要阅读的话题的理解。

  第二步:让学生看与话题有关的图片。

  第三步:让学生略读文章的第一段,了解文章大意。

  第四步:让学生预测文章内容。老师可以让学生阅读文章的开头预测结尾或者阅读文章的中间部分预测开头和结尾。学生可以根据文章的题目、作者或者是关键词等来做出预测。

  阅读中期的活动:

  阅读是可以由多人合作完成的,以下的一些活动可能会对你有所帮助。

  1.跑步和阅读。

  第一步:把学生按每两人分成一组。每组中的学生A坐在教室的一端,学生B站在他/她旁边。

  第二步:把阅读材料粘贴在教室的另一端。给学生A一个问题列表。

  第三步:学生A提问学生B列表上的第一个问题,学生B跑步穿过教室去看阅读材料找到问题的答案,然后跑回原地把答案告诉学生A。学生A提问学生B第二个问题,活动循环进行。

  第四步:最快回答完所有问题的一组获胜。(老师要在活动中间安排每组的学生转换角色,这样每位同学都有机会练习速读。)

  2.将一篇文章剪切成几个部分。这是一个真正练习合作阅读的活动。

  第一步: 复印一篇合适的文章,将它沿对角剪成四份。

  第二步:把学生每四人分成一组,每人拿一份剪切后的文章,不能把文章给别人看。

  第三步:老师给每一组提问几个问题。

  第四步:每组学生只阅读自己分到的文章片段,通过合作找到问题的答案。

  3.阅读学生的作文

  老师可以把学生的作文贴在墙上供他们阅读,让他们猜文章的作者,推选最有趣的文章,还可以选出几篇制作班级杂志。

  阅读后期的活动:

  1.对于阅读材料内容展开讨论。

  2.总结文章大意。

  3.复习文章。

  4.学习文章中出现的语言点,如词语搭配。

  Activities for using magazines in the classroom

  Clare Lavery

  MAGAZINES are a rich source of authentic materials and can be very motivating and

  inspire a wide range of activities. Here are some ideas and tips to help you get the best out of them.

  Using the cover

  Step1: Use the cover image to brainstorm words associated with the picture and probable topics to be found in the magazine.

  Step 2: Look at the headlines on the cover to predict the main topics featured inside.

  Using a whole magazine

  Set a time limit for these tasks to encourage students to skim through the publications.

  Step 1: Ask students in pairs to skim through their magazine and list the types of topics covered. Encourage use of headlines and pictures to guess topic types. Then let them compare their topic list with the contents page.

  Step 2: Write the key headlines from all main feature articles on the board and dictate a list of topics or themes. Ask students to match the topics to the headlines on the board.

  Step 3: Provide quiz questions set to a time limit.

  Choose what you like

  Step 1: Ask students to skim through and quickly select the article that appeals to them most. They can tell their group or class why. This helps you see what types of topic they are interested in for planning future reading exercices.

  Step 2: Higher levels can choose a short feature and read in their group. Each group then makes an oral summary of the article to report back to the rest of the class.

  杂志提供给我们丰富的阅读材料,有助于老师开展多样化的课堂活动。以下是作者建议的课堂练习。

  利用封面:

  第一步:让学生看杂志封面的图片,猜想和图片内容有关的词语以及文章中有可能出现的话题。

  第二步:让学生根据封面上的大标题预测杂志中的主要话题。

  利用整个杂志:

  老师要限制学生做这项活动的时间,以帮助他们练习略读。

  第一步:让学生分组浏览杂志,列出各个文章话题的类型。鼓励学生利用标题和图片猜想话题类型。然后让他们根据目录页对照他们所列的话题列表。

  第二步:把所有主要专题文章的标题写在黑板上,然后口述一些话题与主题,让学生把话题与标题对应起来。

  第三步:在有限的时间内做小测验。

  选择学生喜欢的文章:

  第一步:让学生快速浏览杂志,选出他们最喜欢的文章,并将选择理由告诉同组或全班同学。这项活动有助于老师发现学生感兴趣的话题,以便日后让他们做阅读练习。

  第二步:对于水平较高的学生,让他们选择一篇专题文章作为每组的阅读材料。每个组总结文章大意,告诉班里其他同学。

  Reading strategies

  FOR faster and better comprehension, choose activities before and during your students’ reading task that employ the following strategies.

  Prediction

  Give your students hints by asking them questions about the pictures, headlines, or format of the text to help them predict what they will find when they read it.

  Guessing from context

  If students have trouble understanding a particular word or sentence, encourage them to look at the context to try to figure it out. Encourage advanced students to guess implied meanings by considering context.

  Skimming

  You can give your students 30 seconds to skim the text and tell you the main topic. Then they will have a framework to understand the reading when they work through it more carefully.

  Scanning

  Students must look through a text quickly, searching for specific information.

  Step 1: Give students a non-continuous text, such as recipes, forms, or bills.

  Step 2: Ask them to scan for an ingredient amount, account number, date of service, or something similar.

  Step 3: Give students a continuous text like newspaper article, letter, or story.

  Step 4: Ask them for a specific piece of information and give them just enough time to find it without allowing so much time that they will simply read through the entire text.

  为了达到更快更好的阅读效果,老师可以帮助学生在阅读之前和阅读之中练习如下阅读策略。

  预测信息:

  在提问学生关于图片、标题或文章格式这些问题时给他们提供暗示,帮助他们预测在阅读过程中将要找到的信息。

  从上下文找答案:

  如果学生在理解某个单词或句子的时候遇到困难,鼓励他们通过上下文找到答案。鼓励阅读水平较高的学生通过上下文猜想句子的深层含义。

  略读以找到文章大意:

  老师可以给学生30秒的时间略读文章,找到文章的主题。这样学生在精读文章的时候就会从整体框架上把握文章。

  扫读以快速找到具体信息:

  第一步:给学生一篇内容非连贯性的文章,如菜谱、表格、账单等。

  第二步:让他们找出某种营养成分比例、数字或时间等内容。

  第三步:给学生一篇内容连贯的文章,如报纸文章、信件、故事等。

  第四步:让他们找出一个非常具体的信息。留给他们足够的时间,但是时间一定不要太长,以免学生通读全文来找答案而忽略了技巧训练。

  
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